Pierre-Yves Jeannin Symposium 2: Archaeology and Paleontology in Caves Scientific coordinator: Speleology and Mines Scientific coordinator: Thilo Arlt Scientific and editorial board:
The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Katzenstein argues thatboth groups have chosen strategies adapted to the institutional terrain in whichthey are struggling. Similarly, Ferree et al. The interweaving of strategic choice and perceived opportunity in these cases isnot accidental, and highlights the difficulty of neatly separating mobilization pro-cesses from opportunity structure.
As these two examples show, opportunity struc-tures already anchored in institutions provide powerful incentives to movements tochoose certain types of strategies and these differ dramatically between institutionalcontexts.
Since opportunities, as perceived, affect choices of strategy and over thelonger term strategies affect the types of gains that movements can make, there canbe no question that mobilization practices institutionalize opportunity.
Later, when the institutionalization of once-radicalfeminist goals seems commonplace e. The resource mobilization approach initially took the language of corporateorganization entrepreneurs, franchises, etc. When the NSM approach postulated this specific organizational form as definingthe movements of interest, it made it difficult to see when and how transitionsbetween organizational types might be occurring.
The synthesis into a comparative political process model seems to have resolvedthe tension between the two schools, but at the cost of not considering historicaltransformations in strategy as something to be explained.
The institutionalization ofclass politics but not their nineteenth and early twentieth century feminist competi-tors in Europe and the emergence of lobbying forms of movement organizations inthe US in the early twentieth century to express both class and gender demands Clemens laid the groundwork for movement organizing to follow differentinstitutional tracks in each context.
For example, network-like informal groups haveremained more common for longer among feminists in Europe, while Americanfeminist groups — like those of other movements — shifted to more conventionallobby-like structures Ferree Some of thesepersist among American feminists e.
But it competes with strategies that are more adaptedto gaining access and influence within formal, state-centered politics. As feminist politics become more anchored in party caucuses and electoral systems myra marx ferree and carol mcclurg muellerin Europe, one could predict a shift away from discursive and toward moreaccess-oriented strategies there as well, in which formal organizations would haveadvantages over collectives and networks.
While they compete for members, the formal-bureaucratic and collectivist-lifestyleorganizational types do not necessarily conflict within a movement, but may offersynergistic advantages Lofland She also suggests that the least advantaged sub-groups in the movement have the most to gain by not narrowing the repertoire ofcontention to more formally political strategies.
Particularly when the analysis ofoppressive relations focuses on institutions other than the state such as feministcritiques of organized medicine, the Catholic Church or the mediadiscursive andinformal repertoires of contention may be especially suitable see Taylor But it would be a mistake to view such strategic choices of organizational form asnecessarily dichotomous or exclusionary.
One location where the significance of all three types of organizing can be seen isthe conference as a specific type of movement activity. Rossi ; West Although confer-ences are events in the same way that a strike, a demonstration or an urbaninsurrection is, they have been less readily recognized as important by social move-ment researchers, perhaps because women have relied on them as mobilizing toolsdisproportionately more than men.
Still, givingattention to ideas provides a useful point of entry into considering both micro socialpsychological and macro institutional cultural dynamics that the mesolevel organ-izational emphasis of the s had neglected. At the cultural level of institutions, the organization of public and private asgendered spheres in modern societies creates specific contradictions that are oftenthe locus of movement debates.
Especially as notions of a world polity with normsthat are negotiated in transnational venues Meyer et al. Normative political theory offers useful insightsinto the nature of these values. Even when property qualifications for such a vision of autonomouscitizenship were discarded, the anchoring of concepts of modernity and democracyin a marketized and gendered vision of autonomy freedom from family dependency myra marx ferree and carol mcclurg muellerand rejection of moral claims that would interfere with self-interest made it incon-ceivable to some that women could or should be included as appropriate politicalactors.
Such deeply gendered ways of thinking pervade specific claims about liberal-ism, modernity, nationalism, and globalization, and continue to offer ways ofarticulating resistance to the state-building, science, and secularism that are seenas characteristic of contemporary public life, particularly as associated with theWest.
Gender ideologies, no less than those of race, class and nation, are corearguments that movements develop and on which they depend for frames that willresonate with socially institutionalized values.
Thus as current events drive social movement analysts to consider right-wingmobilizations, antimodernization ideologies, and religious fundamentalisms asimportant aspects of political culture, feminist theorizing about gender and thestate offers significant conceptual tools for understanding these changes and con-flicts transnationally.
The mobilization of racist visions of the nation often combinewith masculinist discourses of humiliation and the loss of honor, whether in the USmilitia and Christian Identity movements Kimmel and Ferber ; Blee ,Hindu nationalism Sehgalor Islamic fundamentalisms Kandiyoti ;Moghadam Such antimodernist movements have often been the opponentsof organized feminism, and have made gender relations along with race and nation an explicit target of movement mobilization.
Understanding gender ideologies andframes as pervasive elements in political struggles around the globe is now inescap-ably part of the challenge facing movement theorists.
Issues ofwill motivation and of values are especially poorly understood by a model thatposits unemotional calculation of expected outcomes.
This also suggests the usefulnessof biographical models Andrews ; Stryker et al. Social movement organizations exist beyond the lifetimes of single individuals. Organizational behavior is another significant dimension of movement activitiesthat can hardly be analyzed without understanding how emotions are used to framepolitical action.
But because emotionality is ascribedto women, women may be more aware of their emotions and more able to use themstrategically, while men in movements may suffer under the illusion that they aredispassionate and fail to recognize their own visceral responses.
It should also expand the model of the socialmovement actor from a narrowly cognitive rational actor to a more historically andbiographically situated person with attachments and emotions that can be intrinsic-ally motivating but also open to manipulation by others. Such actors are part ofcommunities with historically developed traditions and acquire commitments and asense of entitlement through processes of political socialization, within movementcommunities as well as in mainstream, possibly patriarchial cultures.A separate entrance leads into the cozy living room of the apartment.
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Termin: Vortragende(r) Titel des Vortrages: Fr., (HK) Dr.
Alex Redinger Uni Luxemburg: Cu2ZnSnS(e)4 thin film solar cells - Challenges and prospects. As the Katzenbuckel hill is largely cultivated, natural outcrops of the magmatic rocks are rare. Thus, field relations are mainly based on the early works of Rosenbusch (), Lattermann (), Freudenberg () and Frenzel, , Frenzel, , Frenzel, , Frenzel, The most evident characteristic of these cuttings is that they are clearly meandering just as the vadose trenches in the sub-orizontal galleries of the natural caves Where during the storms the tunnels are flooded it is common to find lateral marked undercuttings rough scallops (the structure of tufa is coarse) even pot-holes (probably induced.
Attenuation correction in PET is the primary prerequisite for quantification of the radiotracer's signal. Absolute quantification is the key to improve diagnostic performance, to enable comparisons between follow-up examinations and to perform pharmacokinetic modeling.
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