Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Left Realists are interested to find out why crime was increasing so significantly Left Realism is critical of the perspectives which sees longer prison sentences as the solution to crime, Right Realists but also oppose the views of left idealists. Therefore it developed as a response to traditional Marxist and neo-Marxist approaches Left idealistswhich it accused of:
Of the two, Left Realism is more convincing, because its use of the term "realism" is both more justified and more universally applied. Specifically, Right Realism is essentially a reactionary theory that a priori rejects the notion that the cause of crime is either intelligible or worth knowing.
Right Realism assumes the existence of crime without suggesting an explanation for that crime; instead, it focuses on official reactions to the phenomenon of crime and their effect on crime rates, such that "realist" perspective in this case is Left and right realism essay only to determining the utility of potential responses, an endeavor that will inevitably fail due to the impossibility of objectively assessing the impact of a policy without first understanding the causes of the problem that policy is meant to alleviate.
In contrast, Left Realism applies a realist perspective Left and right realism essay the phenomenon of crime itself, rather than presupposing its existence, and as such it is able to actually explain the causes of crime, which in turn leads to more effective crime reduction methods.
Specifically, Left Realism posits that crime emerges from the relative deprivation in a society with structural inequalities which simultaneously encourage a certain kind of life while denying the possibility of achieving it.
In the view of Left Realism, crime is a sort of natural consequence of an inherently contradictory social system, and as such it is not an aberration or deviation from society at large, but rather a characteristic element of society.
As such, Left Realism able to offer empirically better solutions to crime reduction, because the theory can account for the eternal process of action and reaction that is crime and society's response to it.
Before explaining Left Realism in greater detail, it is necessary to first define and explicate Right Realism, because the former is actually a direct response to the latter. Right Realism arose during the early s, and it can actually be seen as a kind of theoretical, ideological, and political response to the social unrest of the s and a widespread disillusionment with the legitimacy of the state in the United States and Britain.
As will be seen, Right Realism is, by definition, dependent on a rejection of certain avenues of inquiry and sources of evidence, because it is born out of and continues to function as a reaction to and rejection of new ideas.
With the decline of leftist idealist criminology, the early s saw the emergence of a strain of theory calling itself Right Realism while circumscribing its analysis and empirical standards within the ideology of the larger American and British conservative movements.
At first blush the notion of criminological realism sounds immediately productive, because the application of rigorous scientific standards and empirical evidence to any issue will be helpful simply by providing more accurate data about the problem. However, because Right Realism emerged out a conservative reaction to left-wing agitation and social tension, almost immediately its application of these standards was determined by an ideology that a priori rejected certain aspects of society as worth researching.
Perhaps the most obvious examples of this are concerned with race. This is not to suggest that Right Realism is inherently racist or otherwise aligned against minorities, but rather than Right Realism, much like the larger ideological movements that spawned it, tends to treat race like crime as a discrete concept or feature, rather than attempting to uncover the social and political origins of it.
As a result, Right Realism's attempts to, for example, determine the influence of race in the use of certain police tactics or the effect of race on the likelihood of engaging in criminal acts are inherently flawed, because they cannot account for the origins of race itself, and thus cannot ultimately account for the relationship between race and crime.
A good example of this tendency comes from James Q. Wilson's essay "The Rediscovery of Character: Private Virtue and Public Policy.
By comparing the basic concepts of Wilson's Broken Windows theory with his statements regarding "private virtue," one is able to see how Wilson's work is an example of Right Realism's tendency to ignore certain variables, ultimately in the support of an ideological end.
Highlighting this problematic tendency will in turn help demonstrate why Left Realism is a superior theory due to the way it applies reasonable standards of question and evidence at every level of investigation. The problem that plagues the Broken Windows theory is the same problem demonstrated in Wilson's essay.
Namely, in both cases a certain sociological phenomenon is taken as a kind of black box, neither worthy of investigation nor even capable of being investigated. In the case of Wilson's essay, the problem arises in his discussion of welfare, because he reaches the conclusion that the reason for the rise in single-parent households, and black single-parent households in particular, is that "in short, the character of a significant number of persons changed" as a result of changing welfare policies Wilsonp.
However, he does not reach this conclusion based on empirical data regarding the ill-defined "character" shift in a portion of the population, but by observing that the rise of single-parent households has increased at a faster rate in black communities and then, one presumes, leaving it up to his readers to make the connection between this observation and what might be implied by it, were race to be considered an immutable, socially and economically discrete characteristic.
He does go so far as to suggest that this supposed change in the character of a certain subset of the population is a "moral problem," which has the effect of making his claim regarding the supposed inferiority of black communities a moral, rather than strictly racial question Wilsonp.
The problem with this analysis is that it simply assumes the disproportionate rise in single-parent households in the black community it itself a kind of discrete, irreducibly complex phenomenon, whose origins can extend no further than the individuals themselves, individuals who, according to Wilson, think it is "good to sire or bear illegitimate children" Wilsonp.
Wilson is not actually interested in determining the actual reason behind the observed disparity, because he has already found his answer in the form of "character. In the same way, Wilson's Broken Windows theory of crime presents disorder, such as broken windows and low-level crime, as the seed of more serious crime, because high instances of disorder indicate to potential criminals that a given area is not well-maintained or supported.
However, this theory does not seek out the root causes of that disorder in the first place, and thus cannot incorporate the institutional and structural causes of disorder into its quantitative analyses of disorder and the effect of Broken Windows-style policing.
In short, then, Wilson is guilty of stopping his investigations at an arbitrary point decided upon by nothing other than the implicit demand of an ideological presupposition. This tendency recurs in Right Realist work other than Wilson's. For example, in their essay "Street Stops and Broken Windows: Terry, Race, and Disorder in New York City," Fagan and Davies argue that the New York Police department uses race as a major factor in its stop-and-frisks, against the better advice of criminological theory and certain legal standards.Crime and Deviance - Left and Right Realism 1.
IME CR & EV D CE AN I 2. LEFT REALIST 3. Lea and Young • In , the first year of the British Crime Survey, the UK government declared it was irrational to fear crime: the public concern was the product of media sensationalism.
Within this essay there will be a clear understanding of the contrast and comparison between left and right realism, supported by accurate evidence that will support and differentiate the two wings of realism.
Left realism is a reaction against both left's tendency to neglect victimisation among working class people and the conservatives' extremely harsh social strategies. It is a perspective that attempts to explain and measure street crime and propose short term policies to control it. This essay will evaluate three of the main aspects of criminology in terms of left and right realism: the definition of crime, the causes of crime and finally the responses to crime.
It will focus on how both left and right realists attempt to explain the causation of crime, together with their suggestions for realistic crime control strategies.
Of the silent trilogy, Earth () is Dovzhenko’s most accessible film but, perhaps for these same reasons, most misunderstood.
In a Brussels’ film jury would vote Earth as one of the great films of all time. Earth marks a threshold in Dovzhenko’s career emblematic of a turning point in the Ukrainian cultural and political avant-garde - the .
Left realism emerged as an influential theory during the s. Its drive was partly dissatisfaction with the dominant criminological perspectives of the time and partially attributable to the prevailing political climate. This essay will outline the emergence of left realism as a means of.